The ancients described wonderful civilizations, but barbaric, evil ones as well. The centuries following the European arrivals would see the culmination of this effort, as Americans pushed westward across the continent, enticed by the lure of riches, open land and a desire to fulfill the nation’s manifest destiny. The first attempt by Europeans to colonize the New World occurred around 1000 A.D. when the Vikings sailed from the British Isles to Greenland, established a colony, and then moved on to Labrador, the Baffin Islands and finally Newfoundland. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. They sailed in August 1679, traveling across Lake Erie into Lake Huron and then to Mackinac, a Twice the pope issued decrees supporting Spain’s claim to Columbus’s discoveries. "monstrous fish" and "hideous monsters" During the journey Marquette kept a detailed journal. He was accompanied by several other notable explorers, including Italian adventurer Henry de Tonti (1650–1704) and Franciscan priest Louis Hennepin (1626–after 1701). It was unofficially celebrated in a number of cities and states as early as the 18th century, but did not become a ...read more, In search of fame and fortune, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan (c. 1480-1521) set out from Spain in 1519 with a fleet of five ships to discover a western sea route to the Spice Islands. The excerpt below describes his party's initial encounter with Native Americans, near Cape Fear, North Carolina. The king commissioned Verrazano to chart (to make a map of) the entire Atlantic coast of North America, from modern-day Florida to Newfoundland (an island off the coast of Canada). During the next three years Champlain traveled on his own, trying to locate an ideal site for colonization. He died shortly thereafter, never reaching Saint Ignace. Instead, he stumbled upon the Americas. When he arrived in Saint-Malo, he found that the "gold" he was carrying was iron pyrite and the "diamonds" were quartz crystals. By that time, the Vikings had established settlements in present-day North America as early as 1,000 A.D. and Christopher ...read more, 1. La Salle succeeded in convincing the king and rich French merchants to sponsor an expedition to the Gulf of Mexico. " . It is thought that he was born a Protestant and at some point converted to Roman Catholicism; this was during the period of bitter rivalry between Protestants and Catholics over which religion would control the French government. La Salle's return trip to New France was beset by several disasters. In addition to being the first European to describe the Niagara Falls, he claimed to have traveled the length of the Mississippi River in 1680—two years before La Salle's historic voyage. Despite the treaty, controversy continued over what Columbus had found. One of the most colorful figures of his era, Fawcett had made ...read more, John Cabot (or Giovanni Caboto, as he was known in Italian) was an Italian explorer and navigator who may have developed the idea of sailing westward to reach the riches of Asia while working for a Venetian merchant. The first was Jacques Cartier (1491–1557), who was determined to find a natural waterway to Asia. These water routes to the East undercut the power of the Italian city-states, and Lisbon became Europe’s new trade capital. By early December they reached Saint Ignace, where Marquette joined them. He was an interpreter and negotiator between Native American fur traders and French companies. Then, turning north, Verrazano anchored at what is now Cape Hatteras on the Outer Banks, a sandbar separated from the mainland by Pamlico Sound. Sieur d'Iberville in 1699 cruised the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and was the first to enter the Mississippi from the south. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Cartier spent his remaining years in Saint-Malo as a prosperous businessman. When he reached Hudson Bay he encountered English traders and learned the extent of their activities. In 1497 Henry VII of England sponsored an expedition to the New World headed by John Cabot, who explored a part of Newfoundland and reported an abundance of fish. Protestantism emphasized a personal relationship between each individual and God without the need for intercession by the institutional church. During this time, France had been establishing New France in present-day Canada. They hoped to find the Northwest Passage, a direct sea route to Asia via the Pacific Ocean. As the French combined colonization with religion, some of the Jesuits became explorers themselves. September 1, 1557 He wrote six books about his expeditions and the importance of the new French settlement. He then sailed on to the coast of New Brunswick, where he explored Chaleur Bay. Plagued by lawsuits and political manipulations, he again appealed to the king. The Dark Ages Jean Nicolet was a Frenchman who had been living among the Huron, Algonquian, and Nipissing tribes since 1618. After the French government granted La Salle permission to explore, trade, and construct forts in New France, he and his men set out across the Great Lakes in a specially built ship called the Griffon. In several areas of the Europe, notably Spain, Germany, and Portugal, population actually declined during part or all of the 17 th century. Verrazano's next expedition in 1527 was sponsored in part by Philippe de Chabot, admiral of France, because the king was preparing for war in Italy and could not spare any ships. In the fall of 1673 he returned to Montreal, where he took the side of Frontenac, the governor of New France, in a dispute that was then going on in the colony. READ MORE: America's Forgotten Swedish Colony. French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle (1643–1687), continued exploring the Mississippi valley, eventually reaching the Gulf of Mexico. In the Renaissance, artists and writers such as Galileo, Machiavelli and Michelangelo adopted a view of life that stressed humans’ ability to change and control the world. Laudonnière managed to survive, however, and escaped to France. Champlain went to sea at an early age, learning navigation and cartography (mapmaking). Until 1598 he fought as a sergeant on the side of Protestant King Henry IV in the Wars of Religion. Monts returned to France, and Champlain stayed with the settlers in Acadia. Making matters even worse, many of his men had deserted and were making their own way back to New France, robbing his supply posts along the way.