The following Herbert Hoover video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 31st American President whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1929 to March 4, 1933. Similarly to the Great Depression, which coincided with the violent dust storms in the Great Plains in the 1930s, the Dust Bowl was addressed by President Roosevelt’s famous New Deal program. People were deprived of adequate clothing, food and nutrition● The forced migration of over 200,000 farmers desperately seeking a new life● The lives of children were severely effected and their education suffered● The dust caused many health problems including dust pneumonia● Farm equipment was buried in the dust and partially covered houses within dust dunes● Migrants, forced to move away from their homes, suffered from inadequate shelter, inadequate sanitation facilities and safe drinking water● Many migrants met with hostility when they reached their destinations. They were discovered with stomachs full of sand and dust. (Plus, many of those Oklahoma migrants were from the eastern part of the state outside of the Dust Bowl.) À l'origine, les plaines du Sud (Southern Plains) étaient des prairies où paissaient les bisons et vivaient des Amérindiens nomades. Wildlife on the ground died of suffocation. Grain growers in Nebraska burned their corn to heat their homes. Not many people are aware of that, since most movies that depict the era, or books that deal with it, such as John Steinbeck’s famous books Of Mice and Men and The Grapes of Wrath, focus on those who fled the area in order to find better lives instead of those who chose to stay. Dust Bowl Facts for kidsThe devastation caused by the Dust Bowl is reflected in the 1934 “Yearbook of Agriculture”, produced by the US Department of Agriculture. Des milliers de fermiers sont jetés sur les routes, en direction de l'ouest. Families were evicted and made homeless● The Dust Bowl coincided with the Great Depression. In 1934, the worst drought in US history spread through 75% of the country, also causing the dust storms to spread from the initial area to numerous other states. They hoped these "farmers' holidays" would reduce the nation's supply of farm produce and raise prices. Le Dust Bowl (« bassin de poussière ») est une région à cheval sur l'Oklahoma, le Kansas et le Texas, touchée dans les années 1930 par la sécheresse et une série de tempêtes de poussière provoquant une catastrophe écologique et agricole. 6. 8. Dust Bowl Fact 14: Dust pneumonia: The Black Blizzards resulted in many cases of dust pneumonia which caused when a thick layer of dust to settle deep in the lungs preventing them from functioning properly. Those who did were chronically underpaid. Cette période des années 1930 a profondément marqué l'écologie scientifique nord-américaine. In addition to this, most were unable to obtain the necessary bank credit to make changes in production. John Steinbeck, dans son roman Les Raisins de la colère, décrit cette période de l'histoire américaine. Il a également consacré une chanson à Tom Joad, l'un des protagonistes des Raisins de la Colère. Dust Bowl Fact 7: What is a Dust Storm? 13. Located in the heart of the Dust Bowl, the state of Nebraska only received 14.5 inches of rainfall in 1934. Un album de Joe Bonamassa, chanteur et guitariste de blues rock américain, porte le nom de Dust Bowl. 10. La crise écologique provoquée par le Dust Bowl a conduit le gouvernement américain à créer le « Soil Conservation Service », appelé aujourd'hui « Natural Resources Conservation Service (en) », une agence chargée de la sauvegarde des ressources naturelles et de l'environnement et dépendant du ministère de l'Agriculture. During the Dust Bowl, some 200,000 migrants moved to California, most destitute and jobless. Many of these programs are still in existence today. These laws included: (a) Agricultural Adjustment Act; (b) Civilian Conservation Corps; (c) Farm Security Administration; (d) Soil Conservation Services; and (e) Rural Electrification Act. 4. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Dust Bowl: Results of a Dust Storm  in Oklahoma. When the migrants found work they would set up temporary homes in canvas tents or wood lean-tos on locations such as dry riverbeds or public lands near to the place they were working. The following Herbert Hoover video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 31st American President whose presidency spanned from March 4, 1929 to March 4, 1933. So when drought conditions occurred between 1930 and 1936 in Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado and New Mexico, the soil simply dried up and blew away. 17. Most Dust Bowl refugees tended to move only to neighboring states. Farming income, that supported between 25% - 30% of Americans, was devastated. Since static electricity could short out engines and car radios, motorists driving through dust storms dragged chains from the back of their automobiles to ground their cars. 6. Cattle farming and sheep ranching had left much of the states devoid of natural grass and shrubs to anchor the soil. Farmers of the period were ignorant of an efficient management system that led to over-farming and the desertification of the land. As farms were abandoned, so were people’s plans to get married or have children. It originally ran from Chicago, Illinois, through areas that were most affected by the dust storms such as Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico, and ended in Santa Monica, California. An estimated 2 million people became hobos during the Dust Bowl. As the drought was a major factor in dust storms, the residents of the area desperately tried to cause rain – some followed folklore and killed snakes to hang them belly-up on their fences, some paid “professional rainmakers” ridiculously high amounts of money to shoot special nitroglycerine-fueled rockets into the sky in the hope of inducing rain, and various companies offered their “brilliant” solutions for stopping the storms and the drought to the government. A typical crop is wheat. Nowadays, it is also used to describe the period in the 1930s. L'œuvre de Woody Guthrie est fortement marquée par sa propre expérience du Dust Bowl. But with 25 percent unemployment at some points during the Great Depression, the chances of finding work were slim. Bromantane: Stacks, Side Effects and Facts. "; The ecosystem disruption unleashed plagues of jackrabbits and grasshoppers. 1. Dust Bowl Facts — Facts about the Dust Bowl Summary “Dust Bowl” is a term that was originally coined by Associated Press journalists to refer to the geographical area of the Great Plains in the USA and Canada which was hit by violent dust storms in the 1930s, but is nowadays used to describe the whole event. Poor farming practices included not only overplanting of crops, but overgrazing livestock. The millions of tons of dirt formed massive black clouds, so terrifying that people believed that the world was coming to an end. Explore 10 surprising facts about America's epic drought disaster—the Dust Bowl. The Dust Bowl period saw the largest migration numbers in American history, with approximately 3.5 million people in total moving out of the affected states (Oklahoma, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Texas, Colorado and New Mexico). months[11] = "The diverse range of websites produced by the Siteseen Network have been produced to help you conduct research on many topics of interest. Farmers could have sped up the process of recovery by shifting from their usual crops to animals and hay, but most of them were not even aware of the benefits of shifting. People living in the Great Plains regions became unemployed and homeless which led to the forced migration of impoverished farmers. Some of the social consequences of the Dust Bowl can be found in Dust Bowl Life. Dust Bowl surveying in Texas. On les surnomme respectivement les Okies et les Arkies. While “black blizzards” constantly menaced Plains states in the 1930s, a massive dust storm 2 miles high traveled 2,000 miles before hitting the East Coast on May 11, 1934. 8. The federal government also bought more than 10 million acres and converted them to grasslands, some managed today by the U.S. Forest Service. The apocalyptical dust storms were made even more gruesome by the unleashed plague of tens of thousands of jackrabbits and grasshoppers, and many people really started to believe that the Biblical Apocalypse was coming. It was the worst drought in North America in 1,000 years. The destination of most Dust Bowl migrants was California. Lorsque la Grande Dépression[4] touche les plaines du Sud au début des années 1930[5],[6], les agriculteurs[7], pour compenser leurs pertes, décident d'augmenter leur production en multipliant le nombre de terres labourées. Most of them did not find work. Size and scope: The average 1930s dust storm carried more dirt than it would take to build two Panama Canals. Homesteading laws: Plains farming boomed in the early 20th century after homesteading laws provided settlers with 640 acres of free land, courtesy of the feds. Dust Bowl Fact 24: Republican President Herbert Hoover was slow to react to the Great Depression advocating the idea that every man should fend for himself and that government handouts to the unemployed did great damage to a persons self-esteem. The Black Blizzards were the massive, dark dust storms that ripped up the topsoil sweeping thousands of tons of dirt across the whole region. Her daughters, Katherine and Ruby, hid behind their mother as Dorothea Lange took the shot. New Deal programs included five major farm laws designed to get farmers back on their feet. European demand for wheat fed this cycle. Beginning with World War I, American wheat harvests flowed like gold as demand boomed. The 1934 “Yearbook of Agriculture” reviewed developments in agriculture over the previous year and stated that: ● Approximately 35 million acres of formerly cultivated land have essentially been destroyed for crop production● 100 million acres now in crops have lost all, or most, of the topsoil● 125 million acres of land now in crops are rapidly losing topsoil. Only 16,000 of the 1.2 million migrants to California during the 1930s came from the drought-stricken region. Facts about the Dust Bowl for kids. U.S Route 66 (also known as US 66, Route 66, Will Rogers Highway, the Mother Road or the Main Street of America) played an important role during the Dust Bowl as it served as one of the major paths of people who migrated west. One of the more interesting aspects about the history of the Dust Bowl was the emergence of "hobos."