New Jersey is home to the second-highest Jewish American (Hebrew) population per capita, after New York. In sum, New Jersey is a curious amalgam of urban and rural, poor and wealthy, progressive and conservative, parochial and cosmopolitan. Major New Jersey rivers include the Hudson, Delaware, Raritan, Passaic, Hackensack, Rahway, Musconetcong, Mullica, Rancocas, Manasquan, Maurice, and Toms rivers. United Airlines is the airport's largest tenant, operating an entire terminal there, which it uses as one of its primary hubs. The Provincial Congress of New Jersey was a transitional governing body of the Province of New Jersey in the early part of the American Revolution. On February 15, 1804, New Jersey became the last northern state to abolish new slavery and enacted legislation that slowly phased out existing slavery. [27], As of 2018, New Jersey was home to the highest number of millionaires per capita of all U.S. New Jersey is the first state to pass such legislation since Iowa and West Virginia eliminated executions in 1965. The position of Governor of New Jersey has been considered one of the most powerful in the nation. In the early 1980s, it acquired Conrail's commuter train operations that connected suburban towns to New York City. Area 8,723 square miles (22,591 square km). High Point, in Montague Township, Sussex County, is the state's highest elevation, at 1,803 feet (550 m) above sea level. Edison's Black Maria was the first motion picture studio. Founding and History of the New Jersey Colony, Martin Kelly, M.A., is a history teacher and curriculum developer. For hundreds of thousands of visitors it offers long stretches of fine beaches along the Atlantic Ocean, and the resort town of Atlantic City may be better known than the state itself. [citation needed], While municipalities retain their names derived from types of government, they may have changed to one of the modern forms of government, or further in the past to one of the other traditional forms, leading to municipalities with formal names quite baffling to the general public. The climate is hot and humid summers and cold winters, with about 1200 mm of precipitation every year. Their fans hail largely from in the predominantly Roman Catholic areas of the northern part of the state and the Jersey Shore. Cathedral Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Newark, the fifth-largest cathedral in North America, is the seat of the city's Roman Catholic Archdiocese. [80] The state has the second largest Jewish population by percentage (after New York);[81] the second largest Muslim population by percentage (after Michigan); the largest population of Peruvians in the United States; the largest population of Cubans outside of Florida; the third highest Asian population by percentage; and the second highest Italian population,[82] according to the 2000 Census. The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6) was briefly docked at the Military Ocean Terminal in Bayonne in the 1950s before she was sent to Kearney to be scrapped. Judge Lewis Morris led the case for a separate governor, and was appointed governor by King George II in 1738.[36]. Its comparatively low greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to the state's use of nuclear power. Most of them claimed that they owed nothing to the proprietors because they received land from Richard Nicolls, Governor of New York. New Jersey is also well known for its beaches, industries, swamps, and pine forests. [137], The standard sales tax rate as of January 1, 2018, is 6.625%, applicable to all retail sales unless specifically exempt by law. The region includes three of the four most densely populated states in the U.S.; only New Jersey has a higher population density than the states of Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. The fish that New England colonists caught and traded included cod, mackeral, halibut, herring, hake, sturgeon and bass. Unlike Plymouth Colony, Jamestown and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. This page was last changed on 17 September 2020, at 22:48. In the 19th century, factories in the "Big Six"[24] cities of Camden, Paterson, Newark, Trenton, Jersey City, and Elizabeth helped drive the Industrial Revolution. In the 1960s, race riots erupted in many of the industrial cities of North Jersey. [35] The area was named the Province of New Jersey. [150] Several New Jersey counties, including Somerset (7), Morris (10), Hunterdon (13), Bergen (21), and Monmouth (42), have been ranked among the highest-income counties in the United States. states. [citation needed], Socially, New Jersey is considered one of the more liberal states in the nation. FedEx Express operates a large cargo terminal at EWR as well. Starting in the 20th century, largely driven by reform-minded goals, a series of six modern forms of government was implemented. The state was named for the island of Jersey in the English Channel. Both sides, in several elections, claimed that the other side had had unqualified women vote and mocked them for use of "petticoat electors", whether entitled to vote or not; on the other hand, both parties passed Voting Rights Acts. Previously, the economy had been largely agrarian, which was problematically subject to crop failures and poor soil. The suburban northwestern and southeastern counties of the state are reliably Republican: Republicans have support along the coast in Ocean County and in the mountainous northwestern part of the state, especially Morris County, Sussex County, and Warren County. Its people fiercely fight off attempts of state government to end home rule by powerful municipal administrations. Within those regions are five distinct areas, based upon natural geography and population concentration. [108], A study by the Pew Research Center found that in 2013, New Jersey was the only U.S. state in which immigrants born in India constituted the largest foreign-born nationality, representing roughly 10% of all foreign-born residents in the state.[105]. states. Jersey isn't part of the U.K., nor is it a full-member state of the EU, but is a separate possession of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom. The PATCO Speedline is a rapid transit system that links Camden County to Philadelphia. Bergen (now Jersey City), on the west bank of the Hudson River, was the first permanent Dutch settlement starting in 1630. Coordinates: 40°48′32″N 74°31′12″W / 40.809°N 74.520°W / 40.809; -74.520. King Charles II had granted the lands between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers to the Duke. This part was renamed New Jersey after an island in the English Channel known as Jersey. [138] There are 27 Urban Enterprise Zone statewide, including sections of Paterson, Elizabeth, and Jersey City. WNBA's New York Liberty played in New Jersey from 2011 to 2013 while their primary home arena, Madison Square Garden was undergoing renovations. New Jersey is called the Garden State because it became famous in the 18th century for the fertility of its land. [20] This is largely because so much of New Jersey consists of suburbs, most of them affluent, of New York City and Philadelphia. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. The colony quickly grew. [146] The state harvests the fourth-largest number of acres planted with asparagus. [168] In 2018, New Jersey's overall educational system was ranked second among all states to Massachusetts by U.S. News & World Report. Today, NJ Transit has eleven commuter rail lines that run through different parts of the state. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 8,882,190 residents as of 2019 and an area of 8,722.58 square miles, making it the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. [238][239] In a 2009 Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll, a plurality supported same-sex marriage 49% to 43% opposed,[240] On October 18, 2013, the New Jersey Supreme Court rendered a provisional, unanimous (7–0) order authorizing same-sex marriage in the state, pending a legal appeal by Governor Chris Christie,[241] who then withdrew this appeal hours after the inaugural same-sex marriages took place on October 21, 2013.