This includes European-colonized countries in the Americas, Australasia, and South Africa, among others. Despite the commonly used term of "African-American", many black Americans cite ancestry from other places across the globe like South America and the Caribbean. This was contrary to the prevailing naturalist belief of the time, which held that socio-cultural and behavioral differences between peoples stemmed from inherited traits and tendencies derived from common descent, then called "race". Ses formes les plus extrêmes ont été, historiquement, le nazisme, l'apartheid et la ségrégation raciale. Michael Omi and Howard Winant's theory of racial formation directly confronts both ethnicity theory's premises and practices. L'ethnie est un concept important de l'ethnologie, mais l'approche subjective et les nombreuses instrumentalisations philosophiques et politiques l'ont historiquement rendu imprécis et malléable, au point que sa pertinence même a pu être remise en question ; deux exemples suffiront à illustrer les difficultés d'utilisation : Des anthropologues comme Moynihan considèrent les identités ethniques comme immuables et universelles, la conscience ethnique étant une forme d'identité qui serait éternellement et partout latente. They argue in Racial Formation in the United States that ethnicity theory was exclusively based on the immigration patterns of a white ethnic population and did not account for the unique experiences of non-whites in this country. This page was last edited on 5 November 2020, at 23:26. The Greeks at this time did not describe foreign nations but had also developed a concept of their own "ethnicity", which they grouped under the name of Hellenes. Fifteen Largest Ancestries in the 2000 Census Doit-on se référer au droit du sang ou au droit du sol ? Though these categories are usually discussed as belonging to the public, political sphere, they are upheld within the private, family sphere to a great extent. In Classical Greek, the term took on a meaning comparable to the concept now expressed by "ethnic group", mostly translated as "nation, people"; only in Hellenistic Greek did the term tend to become further narrowed to refer to "foreign" or "barbarous" nations in particular (whence the later meaning "heathen, pagan"). Anthropologists and historians, following the modernist understanding of ethnicity as proposed by Ernest Gellner and Benedict Anderson see nations and nationalism as developing with the rise of the modern state system in the 17th century. Une ethnie ou un groupe ethnique est une population humaine qui considère avoir en commun une ascendance, une histoire (historique, mythologique), une culture, une langue ou un dialecte, un mode de vie ; bien souvent plusieurs de ces éléments à la fois. Eriksen "Ethnic identity, national identity and intergroup conflict: The significance of personal experiences" in Ashmore, Jussim, Wilder (eds. I. Polinskaya, "Shared sanctuaries and the gods of others: On the meaning Of 'common' in Herodotus 8.144", in R. Rosen & I. Sluiter (eds.). The group’s ethos or ideology may also stress common ancestry, religion, or race.